# 2.4. Time-dependent potentials and pulses¶

Tkwant uses Kwant to define the Hamiltonian of the tight-binding system. We show in the following how time-dependent onsite and coupling elements are defined. The latter can be used to simulate the injection of voltage pulses through the lead electrodes.

## 2.4.1. Time dependent onsite elements¶

Time-dependent gate potentials, aka \(V_g(t)\) in Getting started: a simple example with a one-dimensional chain,
act directly on the onsite elements of the Hamiltonian.
As an example, we define an infinitly long one-dimensional chain.
The central scattering region has 20 lattice sites (in black) and leads on both sides (in grey)
extend the system to \(\pm\) infinity.
On lattice site 10 (depicted in red), an additional time-dependent
\(\sin(\omega t)\) term is added to the onsite element. This can be done by defining
an appropriate onesite function, named `onsite()`

in the example below:

```
import kwant
from math import sin
lat = kwant.lattice.square(a=1, norbs=1)
syst = kwant.Builder()
syst[(lat(x, 0) for x in range(20))] = 1
syst[lat.neighbors()] = -1
def onsite(site, fac, omega, time):
return 1 + fac * sin(omega * time)
# add the time-dependent onsite potential
syst[lat(10, 0)] = onsite
lead = kwant.Builder(kwant.TranslationalSymmetry((-1, 0)))
lead[lat(0, 0)] = 1
lead[lat.neighbors()] = -1
syst.attach_lead(lead)
syst.attach_lead(lead.reversed())
# plot the system
kwant.plot(syst, site_color=lambda s: 'r' if s in [lat(10, 0)] else 'k',
lead_color='grey');
syst = syst.finalized()
```

Kwant requires that the first element of
the `onsite()`

function with name `site`

is a
kwant.builder.Site
instance, while the other arguments are optional.
When initializing the solver `tkwant.manybody.State`

the optional parameters
must be set by the `params`

dictionary. Whereas the names for these optional parameters
are arbitrary, the name `time`

is particular and will be interpreted
by Tkwant as the actual time variable.

```
import tkwant
state = tkwant.manybody.State(syst, tmax=100, params={'fac':0.1, 'omega':0.5})
```

The position of the `time`

variable within the optional parameters in
the `onsite()`

function is arbitrary.

See also

An example script which a time-dependent onsite potential is
`1d_wire_onsite.py`

.
An example using optional parameters can be found in
`fabry_perot.py`

.

## 2.4.2. Time dependent coupling elements¶

Time-dependent coupling elements of the Hamiltonian can be defined quite similar.
Again, we use an infinitly long one-dimensional chain with a central
scattering region of 20 lattice sites (in black) as an example. The coupling element between
matrix element 9 and 10 (highlighted in red) has an additional time-dependent
\(\sin(\omega t)\) term. This can be done by defining
a coupling function, named `coupling()`

in the example below:

```
import kwant
from math import sin
lat = kwant.lattice.square(a=1, norbs=1)
syst = kwant.Builder()
syst[(lat(x, 0) for x in range(20))] = 1
syst[lat.neighbors()] = -1
def coupling(site1, site2, fac, omega, time):
return -1 + fac * sin(omega * time)
# add the time-dependent coupling element
time_dependent_hopping = (lat(9, 0), lat(10, 0))
syst[time_dependent_hopping] = coupling
lead = kwant.Builder(kwant.TranslationalSymmetry((-1, 0)))
lead[lat(0, 0)] = 1
lead[lat.neighbors()] = -1
syst.attach_lead(lead)
syst.attach_lead(lead.reversed())
# plot the system
kwant.plot(syst, site_color='k', lead_color='grey',
hop_lw=lambda a, b: 0.3 if (a, b) in [time_dependent_hopping] else 0.1,
hop_color=lambda a, b: 'red' if (a, b) in [time_dependent_hopping] else 'k');
syst = syst.finalized()
```

Kwant requires that the first two elements of
the `coupling()`

function to be instances of
kwant.builder.Site .
The rest is similar to above example with the time-dependent onsite elements.

```
import tkwant
state = tkwant.manybody.State(syst, tmax=100, params={'fac':0.1, 'omega':0.5})
```

## 2.4.3. Voltage pulses through a lead¶

While the lead Hamiltonian does not depend explicitly on time, voltage pulses through a lead can be simulated by time-dependent coupling elements between the lead and system. In the current example, a time dependent potential drop is injected at a position \(i_b\), such that the system Hamiltonian becomes

\(\theta(x)\) is the Heaviside function and \(w(t)\) an arbitrary function parametrizing the time-dependent perturbation that we like to apply to the system. In this example we choose a Gaussian function

where \(v_p\) is some strenght and \(\tau\) accounts for the width of the pulse. Note the convention that the time-dependent perturbation has to start after time \(t=0\) and we have introduced a shift \(t_0\) that should be chosen large enought to switch on the perturbation adiabatically. One can absorb the effect of the time-dependent perturbation by a gauge transform. Defining the integrated pulse

we just have to rewrite the coupling \(\gamma\) between site \(i_b\) and \(i_b + 1\) by the time dependent coupling \(\gamma(t)\):

In the following code we define the function \(\phi(t)\) named
`gaussian`

and replace the coupling between site 0 and 1 by the time
dependent coupling

```
import kwant
import cmath
from scipy.special import erf
def make_system(a=1, gamma=1.0, W=10, L=30):
lat = kwant.lattice.square(a=a, norbs=1)
syst = kwant.Builder()
def gaussian(time):
t0 = 100
A = 0.00157
tau = 24
return A * (1 + erf((time - t0) / tau))
# time dependent coupling with gaussian pulse
def coupling_nn(site1, site2, time):
return - gamma * cmath.exp(- 1j * gaussian(time))
#### Define the scattering region. ####
syst[(lat(x, y) for x in range(L) for y in range(W))] = 4 * gamma
syst[lat.neighbors()] = -gamma
# time dependent coupling between two sites 0 and 1
time_dependent_hoppings = [(lat(0, y), lat(1, y)) for y in range(W)]
syst[time_dependent_hoppings] = coupling_nn
#### Define and attach the leads. ####
# Construct the left lead.
lead = kwant.Builder(kwant.TranslationalSymmetry((-a, 0)))
lead[(lat(0, j) for j in range(W))] = 4 * gamma
lead[lat.neighbors()] = -gamma
# Attach the left lead and its reversed copy.
syst.attach_lead(lead)
syst.attach_lead(lead.reversed())
return syst, time_dependent_hoppings
syst, time_dependent_hoppings = make_system()
kwant.plot(syst, site_color='k', lead_color='grey',
hop_lw=lambda a, b: 0.3 if (a, b) in time_dependent_hoppings else 0.1,
hop_color=lambda a, b: 'red' if (a, b) in time_dependent_hoppings else 'k');
```

The special case of a time dependent coupling between the sites at the system-lead interface shown above can be written in more compact form. We first defines a system as before, but without the time dependent part.

```
import kwant
def make_system(a=1, gamma=1.0, W=10, L=30):
lat = kwant.lattice.square(a=a, norbs=1)
syst = kwant.Builder()
#### Define the scattering region. ####
syst[(lat(x, y) for x in range(L) for y in range(W))] = 4 * gamma
syst[lat.neighbors()] = -gamma
#### Define and attach the leads. ####
# Construct the left lead.
lead = kwant.Builder(kwant.TranslationalSymmetry((-a, 0)))
lead[(lat(0, j) for j in range(W))] = 4 * gamma
lead[lat.neighbors()] = -gamma
# Attach the left lead and its reversed copy.
syst.attach_lead(lead)
syst.attach_lead(lead.reversed())
return syst
```

The time dependent couplings are added by

```
import tkwant
from scipy.special import erf
def gaussian(time):
t0 = 100
A = 0.00157
tau = 24
return A * (1 + erf((time - t0) / tau))
syst = make_system()
added_sites = tkwant.leads.add_voltage(syst, 0, gaussian)
```

In fact, the routine adds new sites at the system-lead interface and
modifies `syst`

. Note that `syst`

must not be finalized. We can also
skip `added_sites`

and call `tkwant.leads.add_voltage`

without
return argument, if we are not interested in the added sites. The second
function argument of `tkwant.leads.add_voltage`

corresponds to the
lead number, here `0`

, where the pulse is injected. We can show the
new sites with time-dependent couplings (in red) if we plot the system.

```
interface_hoppings = [(a, b)
for b in added_sites
for a in syst.neighbors(b) if a not in added_sites]
kwant.plot(syst, site_color='k', lead_color='grey',
hop_lw=lambda a, b: 0.3 if (a, b) in interface_hoppings else 0.1,
hop_color=lambda a, b: 'red' if (a, b) in interface_hoppings else 'k');
```

Note that in fact the system is not exactly the same as before due to
the additional sites (at x position -1), that were added. We could have constructed the
system with `syst = make_system(L=29)`

to recover exactly the same
length as in the example before.

See also

An example script where a voltage pulses is injected through a lead is
`fabry_perot.py`

.